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WOLVES OF THE WORLD

PURE WOLVES are distributed across the northern portion of both WORLD continents, and but more sporadically to the southward tips of the land masses. To say they are just in America and not found in Russia is very presumptions. Six thousand wolves have been estimated to inhabit the Alaskan interior at densities varying from 39 individuals per 1,000 square kilometers in richer food supplies, verses more southerly habitats, to 6 per 1,000 square kilometers in coastal and northern tundra where food is less available. Currently it is stated that there is now close to 3000 left in the wild here in America. Hence the need for conservation, instead of being d' listed.


A study of wolves in the remote Anadyr highlands of Russian Beringia determined an intermediate density: about 10 wolves per 1,000 square kilometers. Truly they are just about everywhere!

Alaska wolves: Subspecies: ligoni, pambasileus, tundrarum, alces. Status: fully viable, numbering approximately 6,000. Range occupied. 100%. Main prey: moose, caribou, sheep, deer, beaver, goal Legal status: animals are hunted and trapped in limited seasons with bag limits. Some control work, enforcement active.

British Columbia, Yukon wolves: Subspecies: crassodon, fuscus, columbianus, mackenzii, occidentalis, tundrarum, ligoni, irremotus. Status: fully viable, numbering approximately 8,000. Range occupied: 80%. Main prey: moose, caribou, sheep, deer, beaver, goat, elk. Legal status: game species, furbearer (BC), no closed season.

Alberta wolves: Subspecies: occidentalis, griseoalbus, irremotus, nubilus. Status: fully viable, numbering approximately 4,000. Range occupied: 80%. Main prey: moose, caribou, sheep, deer, beaver, goat, elk, bison. Legal status: furbearer.

Saskatchewan, Manitoba: Subspecies: hudsonicus, griseoalbus, irremotus, nubilis. Status: fully viable, number unknown. Range occupied: 70%. Main prey: moose, elk, deer, beaver, bison, caribou. Legal status: furbearer.

Northwest Territories wolves: Subspecies: arctos, bernardi, columbianus, griseoalbus, hudsonicus, mackenzii, nubilus, occidentalis, pambasileus. Status: fully viable, numbering 5,000-15,000. Range occupied: 100%. Main prey: moose caribou, sheep, deer, beaver, goat. Legal status: forbearer.

Ontario, Quebec wolves: Subspecies: lycaon, hudsonicus, labradorius. Status: fully viable, number <10,000. Range occupied: 80%. Main prey: moose,deer, caribou, beaver. Legal status: furbearer.

Newfoundland wolves (the island): Subspecies: beothucus, extinct since 1911.

Labrador: Subspecies: labradorius. Status: fully viable, number unknown. Range occupied: 95 %. Main prey: moose, caribou, beaver, musk ox, hares. Legal status: furbearer.

Minnesota wolves: Subspecies: lycaon. Status: viable, numbering approximately 1,200. Range occupied: 30%. Main prey: deer, moose, beaver. Legal status: full protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Michigan and Wisconsin wolves: Subspecies: lycaon. Status: lingering, 35 individuals. Highly endangered. Range occupied: 10%. Main prey: deer, beaver, moose. Legal status: full protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Northwestern United States wolves: Subspecies: irremotus. Status: slowly recolonizing, 30 individuals. Highly endangered. Range occupied: 5%. Main prey: deer, elk, moose, sheep, goats, beaver. Legal status: full protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Southwestern United States wolves: Subspecies: baileyi. Status: extinct. Range occupied: nil. Main prey: deer, livestock. Legal status: full protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Mexican wolves: Subspecies: baileyi. Status: lone wolves or pairs, <10 individuals. Highly endangered. Range occupied: <10%. Main prey: livestock. Legal status: unenforced full protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Sweden/Norway wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: lonewolvesor pairs, <10 individuals. Highly endangered. Range ccupied: <10%. Main prey: moose, reindeer, livestock. Legal status: Full protection. Cause of decline: persecution.

Finland wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: lingering, probably only lone wolves or pairs, <100 individuals. Endangered. Range occupied: < 10%. Legal status: no protection (north), game status (east), protected (south). Main Prey: moose, reindeer, . white-tailed deer, livestock. Cause of decline: persecution.

Greenland wolves: Subspecies: orion. Status: lingering, 50? individuals. Threatened. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: musk-ox, caribou. Legal status: unknown. Cause of decline: persecution.

Turkey wolves: Subspecies: lupus, pallipes. Status: Viable, but in decline. Unknown number of individuals. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: livestock, unknown. Legal status: no protection.

Syrian wolves: Subspecies: lupus, pallipes. Status: lingering, low population density, 200-500 individuals. Highly threatened. Range occupied: 10%. Main prey: livestock, carrion, small wildlife. Legal status: no protection. Cause of decline: persecution.

Jordan wolves: Subspecies: unknown. Status: lingering, low population density, 200? individuals. Highly threatened. Range occupied: 90%. Legal status: no protection. Main prey: unknown. Cause of decline: persecution.

Israel wolves: Subspecies: pallipes, arabs.

Status: lingering, low population density, 100-150 individuals. Highly threatened. Range occupied: 60%. Main prey: hares, livestock, carrion. Legal status: full protection. Cause of decline: habitat destruction, persecution.

Egyptian wolves (Sinai): Subspecies: arabs. Status: 30 individuals. Highly endangered. Range occupied: 90%. Main prey: hares, livestock. Legal status: no protection. Cause of decline: persecution.

Lebanon wolves: Subspecies: unknown. Status: lone wolves or pairs, >10 individuals. Highly endangered. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: garbage, carrion. Legal status: no Protection. Cause of decline: persecution.

Arabian peninsula wolves: Subspecies: pallipes, arabs. Status: in decline, <300 individuals. Range occupied: 90%. Main prey: garbage, carrion, livestock. Legal status: no protection. Cause of decline: persecution.

Iranian wolves: Subspecies: pallipes, campestris. Status: fully viable, numbering >1000. Range occupied: 80%. Main prey: gazelle, mountain sheep, livestock, wild boar, deer, Capra sp. Legal status: Game species. Cause of decline: persecution.

Iraqi wolves: Subspecies: unknown. Status: unknown. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: unknown. Legal status: unknown. Cause of decline: unknown.

Afghanistan wolves: Subspecies: pallipes, chanco. Status: viable, suspected decline, 1,000? individuals. Range occupied: 90%. Main prey: unknown. Legal status: unknown. Cause of decline: unknown.

Pakistan wolves: Subspecies: pallipes, campestris. Status: unknown. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: unknown. Legal status: unknown. Cause of decline: unknown.

Bhutan wolves: Subspecies: chanco. Status: unknown. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: unknown. Legal status: protected. Cause of decline: unknown.

Nepal wolves: Subspecies: chanco. Status: unknown. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: unknown. Leg status: unknown. Cause of decline: unknown.

India wolves: Subspecies: pallipes. Status: lingering, probably only lone wolves or pairs, 1,000-2,000 individuals. Endangered. Range occupied: 20%. Main prey: livestock, hare, deer, antelope. Legal status: unenforced full protection. Cause of decline: decreasing prey, persecution.

Mongolia wolves: Subspecies: chanco. Status:

viable, possible decline, > 10,000 individuals. Range occupied: 100%. Main prey: livestock, saiga. Legal status: extermination efforts active.

China wolves: Subspecies: chanco. Status: extermination efforts active, population numbers unknown. Range occupied: 20%. Main prey: saiga, other ungulates, livestock. Legal status: unknown. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

U.S.S.R. (Europe) wolves: Subspecies: lupus, albus, campestris, chanco. Status: fully viable, numbering approximately 20,000. Range occupied: 60%. Main prey: ungulates, livestock. Legal status: reduction and control even in nature reserves. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

U.S.S.R. (Asia) wolves: Subspecies: lupus, albus, campestris, chanco. Status: fully viable, numbering approximately 50,000. Range occupied: 75%. Main prey: ungulates and livestock. Legal status: reduction and control even in nature reserves. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Poland wolves: Subspecies: lupus, campestris. Status: fully viable, numbering approximately 900. Range occupied: 90%. Main prey: (moose), roe deer, red deer, wild boar, mufflon. Legal status: partial protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Czechoslovakia wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: steep decline/ lingering, 100? Individuals. Highly threatened or endangered. Range occupied: 10%. Main prey: roe deer, red deer, wild boar, mufflon. Legal status: no protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Romania wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: decline, 2,000? individuals. Range occupied: 20%. Main prey: roe deer, red deer, wild boar, mufflon. Legal status: no protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Bulgaria wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: lingering, low population density, 100? individuals. Highly threatened. Range occupied: unknown. Legal status: no protection. Main prey: (moose) roe deer, red deer, wild boar, mufflon. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Greece: Subspecies: lupus. Status: Viable, but in decline, >500 individuals. Range occupied: 60%. Main prey: deer, wild boar, chamois, livestock. Legal status: partial protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Yugoslavia wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: steep decline, approximately 2,000 individuals. Range occupied: 55 %. Main prey: deer, wild boar, chamois, livestock. Legal status: partial protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Albania wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: unknown. Range occupied: unknown. Main prey: unknown. Legal status: unknown. Cause of decline: unknown.

Hungary wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: extinct. Range occupied: nil. Main prey: unknown. Legal status: protected. Cause of decline: unknown.

Italy wolves: Subspecies: lupus. Status: lingering, low population density, 250 individuals (Boitani 1987). Highly threatened. Range occupied: 10%. Main prey: garbage, livestock. Legal status: full protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction, prey extermination.

Spain wolves: Subspecies: signatus, (lupus). Status: lingering, low population density, 500-1,000 individuals. Threatened. Range occupied: 10%. Main prey: livestock, roe deer, wild boar. Legal status: partial protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Portugal wolves: Subspecies: signatus, (lupus). Status: lingering, low population density, 150 individuals. Highly threatened. Range occupied: 20%. Main prey: livestock, roe deer, wild boar. Legal status: partial protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.

Central Europe wolves: Subspecies: (lupus). Status: Extinct. Range occupied: nil. Main prey: livestock, red deer, roe deer, chamois, wild boar. Legal status: no protection. Cause of decline: persecution, habitat destruction.